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Earth's Physical Environment at the Time of Creation

By Donald P. Moss


Series Introduction

Foreshadows Introduction

Volume 1 -THE GARDEN OF EDEN - Adam's Creation and His
Spiritual and
Physical Environments


Volume 3 - JOSEPH, EPHRAIM AND MANASSEH - A Foreshadow of God's Agenda for Jew and Gentile

Volume 4  - CROSSING THE JORDAN RIVER - A Foreshadow of Salvation for Jew and Gentile

Volume 5 - THE BOOK OF REVELATION - God's Agenda for the End Time


Volume 7  - CHRIST IN THE TABERNACLE - A Foreshadow of Redemption


Bible Lessons



This quick study is an excerpt from Volume 1 - The Beginning - Adam's Spiritual and Physical Environments - See chapter 4.


In the Beginning - Earth's Created Physical Environment


The following discussions will provide a simple, but in-depth analysis of the earth's beginning (creation and environment), including today's earth and the future earth. This study will provide an analytical study using physical sciences of earth to reveal the difference between pre-flood and post flood earth. The science of physics laws and the Bible's account of creation begin to merge into a comprehensive big picture of the beginning and the theory of evolution fades because it lacks proof.

See For the Eyes of Your Understanding, Volume 2 - New Beginning and a New World Order for additional insight to the post-flood earth environment. Go to chapter 1.

The basis of this study is centered the understanding that prior to the fall of Adam, the original state of earth and Adam were perfect and would exist forever. All that God created in the six days of creation was perfect and created to be an eternal creation, including the earth and it's atmosphere. The fall of Adam changed the original spiritual and physical configurations because death and decay entered the environment.

After death and decay entered into the original creation of earth, it became necessary to re-create the heavens and earth after the millennium reign of Christ. So, this current phase of the heavens and earth is phase one of a two phase plan. The new heaven and earth, is re-created in Revelation 21:1. The second phase exists from immediately after the millennium period throughout eternity where the body of Christ will live with the Lord.

2 Peter 3:12-13 (KJV) - Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat? (13) Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness.

The new heaven and new earth will be a place where the righteous family of God will dwell and coincides with God returning to the earth.

The era of time for the first heaven and earth is a time for God birthing His family, transforming them into His likeness and afterwards maturing them to full glorification as they live with Christ for a thousand years. Then Father God re-creates heaven and earth and returns to the earth with the holy city, new Jerusalem.


The Re-created Heaven and Earth Configuration is Much Like the Original Configuration

Seeking to better understand the original creation prior to and after the flood of Noah's time will be influenced by the scripture concerning the new heaven and new earth - Revelation 21:1 (KJV) - And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. This scripture clearly implies there was only one earth and heaven in existence until its re-creation after the millennium era of time. We currently live in the first heaven and earth, although there have been post-flood changes in the environment.

Note: There are bible scholars that believe there are three phases of heaven and earth. They believe the first phase existed during the age of the dinosaurs. Then, prior to the "dividing of the waters" (prior to Genesis 1:6), there was a flood in which the dinosaurs became extinct in Genesis 1:2. Then God began the second phase by reforming heaven and earth in Genesis 1:6-31 for mankind. Then there is the third phase, God re-creating heaven and earth after the millennium.

In effect, these scholars have made the first heaven and earth mentioned in Revelation 21:1, a two phase perception, rather than a single phase. This interpretation of scriptures created the Gap Theory which will be discussed later in this study. Gap theorists believe there was a heaven and earth prior to Genesis 1:2 upon which the dinosaurs lived.

When one catches a glimpse of the earth's creation, the book of Genesis takes a new perspective of truth and physical science supports the context of Genesis.

Once one has a perception of the reality of the Bible, his or her relationship with God's Word ascends to new levels of faith. The Bible becomes a more tangible Word from God.


The first creative act that began the formation of the earth's physical environment in Genesis 1:6 was the dividing of the waters which covered the entire planet.

The Dividing of the Waters - Creation of the Water Canopy

The creation of the water canopy is a monumental event in forming the physics of the environment on the earth. Understanding these changes will provide insight to original creation of the environment and also provide a common sense perspective between the Bible's account of creation and today's earthly physics we know as factual.

Earth BeginningThe most popular opinion concerning the physical environment for man, animals and plant life did not begin until after God divided the waters on the second day - Genesis 1:6-7 (KJV) - And God said, Let there be a firmament (heaven or sky) in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. (7) And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

Prior to that time the earth was formless and void and covered with water. God did not cause dry land to appear until Verse 9.

Earth's VaporGenesis 1:9-10 (NIV) - And God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so. (10) God called the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters he called "seas."

"Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place" - This gathering of the water did not take place until the third day after the dividing of the waters on the second day in Genesis 1:6. Keep this in mind, gathering of the water on the third day was made possible by the dividing of he waters on the second day. When God removed some of the water and placed it above the firmament, the earth's surface changed and dry land appeared.

What happen to the earth's surface to make the water gather to one place so dry land would appear?

The dividing of the waters was paramount to creating the proper environment for man, animal and plant life to exist eternally. This event resulted in the appearance of dry land in the form of hills, valleys and surface streams and springs of water flowing to the earth's surface for support of all life. Earth's land mass was no longer covered by water. Therefore this part of the study will take scriptures as they are sequentially presented and consider the earth's environment after the dividing of the waters and prior to the flood of Noah's time, which changed the environment again.

What Are the Primary Physics of the Original Earth After the Waters Were Divided?

This study incorporates some of the many laws of physics. I am a believer who believes God does not violate His laws of physics when He forms or changes the earth or creates a new heaven and new earth in the book of Revelation. I believe God included all material elements for the earth in the beginning which are needed for the habitat of man, animal and plant throughout all biblical time. God never comes back to the earth and adds additional elements, including the end time when He creates a new heaven and earth.

Additional material elements may have been added in small portions when meteorites impacted the earth. But, these meteorite elements did not disrupted the original law of physics set in place by God. Physical laws tells us that matter cannot be destroyed. Molecular structure can be decomposed and re-arranged but matter (atoms and particles) cannot be destroyed. Material form can change, but the mass remains the same. So, all matter on the earth in the beginning is still on the earth today. This includes hydrogen and oxygen which together form water - H2O.

Although I am not a physicist I recall the physics and law of opposing forces. There are two opposing forces at work in the earth. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces was affected by the dividing of the waters on the second day and was the major factor involved in changing the original formless environment. These physical alterations had a impact on the contour of planet's surface, forming hills and valleys on the following day.

First, There is the force of magnetism and gravity. This inward force draws all material elements towards the center of the earth's molten iron core.

Earth Section IllustrationThe molten iron core of the earth creates a gravational inward pull on all atomic matter. Weight of all material on the earth is determined by the varying number of particles in in the structure of atoms. The greater the number of particles in an atom, the greater its density and the greater its weight because there's a stronger draw on the more dense atoms than on the less dense atoms. This is referred to as the atomic weight of the atom. The atomic weight of each molecule is listed on the Periodic Chart we all studied in high school physics class.

Without gravity the earth's material would be weightless. For example, In the outer atmosphere materials become weightless due to the weak gravitational force. Both metal and paper alike are weightless outside the earth's gravitational pull. But, when gravity becomes a force in the scenario, then metal is heavier than paper because atoms forming the metal molecule are denser than the atoms forming the paper molecule.

However, the electromagnetic force that binds particles (neutrons, protons, quarks, etc) that form the atoms in the metal and paper materials is still present in a non-gravity weightless environment. Varying types of particles orbit around the nucleus of the atom by an electromagnetic force. Atoms bond together to form molecules by an electromagnetic force. Then gravity draws all atoms and molecules towards the core or center of the earth.

Without an electro-magnetical force atoms and molecules would not exist. Electromagnetism is the bonding force between sub-atomic particles that form atoms, which form molecules, which form material elements in the earth and molecular elements forming the atmosphere's gases. Magnetism is the bonding force that form the earth's elements and the earth's atmosphere.

This is the main force at work in the earth - magnetism is generated by molten iron in the core of the earth and creates gravity. All matter in the earth and above the surface of the earth is magnetically drawn toward the earth's core.

Secondly, the core of the earth is a place of extreme heat created by fusion activity. This extreme heat creates an outward thermal force or pressure which opposes the gravational inward pull of the earth's mantel and crust.

This heat creates an internal pressure inside the earth and radiates outwards and imposes an expansive thermal force (pressure) on the earth's crust. When the outward thermal pressure is greater than the inward gravitational pull on the earth's crust, the crust will expand (the planet swells); resulting in faults and cracks in the earth's surface. Why? Gravity's pull or draw on the material weight of the earth's crust resists thermal pressure and places a boundary on (confines) thermal expansion. A point of equilibrium between the two opposing forces exists when the power of the forces are equal. Equilibrium means the forces are stable. But, when one force becomes greater than its opposing force, the earth's crust trembles until a new point of equilibrium is reached.

If the equilibrium changes through temporary fluctuations in either of the opposing forces, the earth's crust will respond accordingly. Increases in the expansive or inward force cause varying degrees of intensity in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Internal expansive pressure is released through established portals (volcanoes) and faults until the excess pressure is released. An example of this type of fluctuation is presented in the following article -

Atlanta Journal-Constitution newspaper dated Tuesday, August 3, 2004

"Rapid melting of Alaska's glaciers is increasing the chances of future earthquakes there, NASA scientists reported Monday.

Decades of warming in the Arctic have triggered the retreat of at least 85 percent of Alaska's 1,500 glaciers. Scientists say the reduced burden of ice on the land makes the underlying cause of earthquakes…….

……..Some Alaskan quakes are associated with the state's more than 40 active volcanoes. Most, however, are the result of strains built up by the collision of the massive tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust - forces that may be moderated by an overburden of ice.

"We know historically that when big ice masses start to retreat, the number of earthquakes increases," says Jeanne Sauber, a geophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center……"

Today, scientists are observing increased earthquake and volcanic activity due to a reduction of material weight of the ice when the glaciers melt and the water flows into the seas. Material weight in the form of water (melted glacier ice) is distributed to other areas of the earth's crust, allowing thermal pressure to push through the crust of the earth through faults and portals beneath the glaciers (earthquakes). Shortly afterwards, the earth will rest in this area of the planet. So, although the earth is in a state of continuous flux (regionally) during expansive pressure build-up and release, equilibrium remains constant (globally) because material weight of the crust does not change. Occasionally, the earth has to exhale (erupt), so to speak. However, when the weight of the crust is increased or decreased, then catastrophic changes take place.

The weight of the earth's crust was changed dramatically by the dividing of the waters on the second day, and then changed again with the return of the water during Noah's flood.

Understanding the effects of these two opposing forces on the earth's crust are paramount to understanding what happen the the earth's pre-flood and post flood environments.


Earth's Changes in Land Elevations During the Dividing of the Waters

When God dived the waters in Genesis 1:6 there was a great reduction in the weight of water (burden) on the crust of the earth. This reduced weight altered the equilibrium between opposing forces and the crust became unstable. The earth's crust expanded, slightly increasing the diameter of the earth until the two opposing forces reached a new equilibrium. Expansion of the earth's mantle caused the crust to crack, forming the first ever tectonic plates and continents. Volcanic activity occurred and lava oozed through the cracks. The overflowing lava formed hills along the many opened seams or faults in the crust. But, there were no high mountains created during this first time expansion of the crust. It was in Noah's time of the flood when high mountains were created as the crust was compressed and continents collided with tectonic plates. Compression of the crust is many times more catastrophic than expansion of the crust.

Thus, the dividing of the waters caused hills to form and allowed water to flowed into the bowels of the earth through open seams in the crust. The alteration in the earth's surface contour caused the remaining water of the sea to accumulate in hill valleys and sea trenches. Concurrently, dry land appeared and a new equilibrium was reached. Dry land would not have occurred apart from the dividing of the waters.


Was There any Weather Under the Water Canopy?

The most interesting thing about the altered environment is realizing the water canopy above the sky blocked out the radiant heat of the sun along with cosmic and solar radiation. Weather phenomenon as we know it today did not exist under the canopy.

The radiant heat of the sun is blocked and could not reach the earth's surface. Environmental temperature was determined by the canopy trapping the heat of the earth. Temperature was the same over the entire surface of the planet.

Comparing Weather Conditions between Pre-flood and Post-flood Environments


Earth Temperate ZonesWeather, as we experience today, is caused by radiant heat from the sun. Temperatures vary as angles of radiant heat contacting the surface vary. The direct angle (perpendicular to the sun's position) creates the equator. North and south of the equator the radiant heat varies as radiant angles change. Thus, the equator is the hottest area and the north and south poles are coldest. The poles are iced over and the equator's heat creates the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Between the two tropic areas is the greatest degree of evaporation and rain.

Changes in Air Temperature

The heated air between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn collides with the colder air from the polar regions contributing to weather phenomenon as we know it today.

Changes in Water Temperature

The warm waters of the tropical areas mixing with the cooler waters in the polar areas create ocean currents which also contribute to turbulent weather conditions. The turbulence of ocean currents cause some areas of the earth's surface to have unpredictable and inconsistent weather conditions, resulting in deserts, ice and snow storms, hurricanes, tornados, typhoons, etc.


The water canopy blocked the sun's radiant heat. Therefore, there was no equator or polar ice caps. The earth would be encased in a huge terrarium, so to speak. The entire surface of the earth would have a constant tropical type environment because environmental temperatures would be generated by the earth, not the sun.

All plant and animal life would be protected from harmful cosmic and solar radiation. Plant and animals would grow to very large sizes because of the absence of harmful weather and abundance of food. The environment would be perfect for dinosaur and human life.

Remember, prior to Noah's flood rain had not appeared on the earth. Under the water canopy, it would have been impossible for rain to occur because there was no weather to create evaporation and condensation conditions. The absence of rain denotes the absence of all weather phenomenon (hot and cold temperate environment with winds).

The Ground and Plant LIfe Was Watered By a Mist

Genesis 2:5-6 (KJV) - And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. (6) But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.

In order for the mist from the earth to water the whole face of the ground (earth) then the heat of the sun did not "burn off" the mist. Thus, the mist had to be protected from the radiant heat of the sun. The mist was a constant part of the environment of the earth under the water canopy, much like a terrarium.


Earth's Changes in Land Elevations During the Flood of Noah's Time - The Formation of Mountains

Evidence for the Existence of the Water Canopy Which Returned to the Earth.

The following scriptures validate no rain occurring prior to the flood.

Genesis 9:15-17 (KJV) - And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. (16) And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth. (17) And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.

"The waters shall no more become a flood" - This phrase indicates this to be a unique statement because the flood was a first time event. Therefore, when God said there would never be another flood, it too is unique. With increased post-flood mountain elevations, there is insufficient water volume on the earth to ever flood the earth again.

"Bow shall be in the cloud", "Token of the covenant" - These statements are also unique because there was never a rainbow to be seen prior to this time because there were no clouds (evidence of condensation) and it never rained (required for rainbow appearance). Therefore, the rainbow was a unique post-flood sign, never seen by Noah. The sign of the rainbow is unique to this covenant. Apart from the sign of the rainbow, the family of Noah would have lived in fear that another flood may come upon them. The rainbow had to be a unique sign for steadfast faith in God's covenant.

Since the rainbow is seen because of the sun's rays reflecting off prevailing water molecules in the atmosphere released by clouds during condensation, prior to the flood there were no rainbows. This phenomenon validates the presence of the water canopy which prohibited weather prior to the flood, otherwise rain would have occurred and rainbows seen.

Earth's Volume of Water Never Changes

The volume of water on the earth and in the atmosphere today is the same as it was in the beginning. As previously mentioned, I personally believe in the beginning God included all the elements He would ever need for future modifications of the earth's environment.

Prior to the Floor - How much water was on the face of the earth from the seas? Currently, there's enough sea water volume on the planet to cover it to a sphere depth of 2,686 meters (8,810 feet) or 1.67 miles. Sphere depth is based on a non-mountainous surface with no deep valleys on the planet. This is the same condition as was in the beginning prior to the dividing of the waters when the earth was formless and void and water covered the entire surface of the planet.

Excerpt from Encyclopedia Britannia, "Ocean - Continental Shelf" - When viewed from space, the predominance of the oceans on the Earth is readily apparent. The oceans and their marginal seas cover nearly 71 percent of the Earth's surface, with an average depth of 3,795 meters (12,450 feet). The exposed land occupies the remaining 29 percent of the planetary surface and has a mean elevation of only 840 meters (2,756 feet). Actually, all the elevated land could be hidden under the oceans if the Earth is reduced to a smooth sphere, it would be completely covered by a continuous layer of seawater 2,686 meters deep. This calculation is known as the sphere depth of the oceans and serves to underscore the abundance of water on the Earth's surface.

The contributing weight from this covering of water upon the earth's crust would be 275 tons per square foot column (12"x12"x1.67 miles x 62.43 lbs. per cubic foot).

The 40 days of torrential rain returned the water above the firmament to the earth's surface. This greatly added to the the overall weight of the earth's crust and a new equilibrium had to be reached. It could be said the original equilibrium prior to the dividing of the waters was re-established. During this adjustment of equilibrium, the earth's crust was compressed because the weight of the returning water to the crust was much greater than the thermal expansive force from the core's heat. This compression of the crust caused continents and tectonic plates to violently collide which greatly increased mountain elevations and valley depressions. This was the most chaotic event ever in the history of the earth.

Genesis 7:19-20 (KJV) - And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. (20) Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.

Verse 19 uses the word "high hills" describing the waters covering the existing pre-flood high hills. Then in verse 20 the word "mountains" is first used describing the waters continued rising until the mountains were covered to a depth of 15 cubits (20 feet). During the six months of the flood prevailing rise of flood waters, elevations of the pre-flood high hills rose into post-flood mountains, as the earth's crust was compressed. This was a time of great chaotic ocean turbulence caused by continent and tectonic plate movement.

Noah's Flood Greatly Increased Existing Surface Elevations - Hills became mountains and valleys became deeper.

Today with mountain elevations exceeding 29,000 feet above sea level, the current mountain elevations increased considerably during the return of the water canopy back to the earth. Compression of the crust was a much greater force than expansion of the crust during the dividing of the waters. Mountains thrust upward as plates subducted beneath the edges of the continents forming very high mountain ranges; and other tectonic plates collided with each other (no subduction action, just head-on collisions) forming lower mountain elevations along the tectonic seams or fault lines.

We know the flood occurred, made possible as the volume of water on the earth today is the same as it was prior to the dividing of water in Genesis 1:6. Today's mountain peaks (29,000 feet +-) cannot possibly be covered by today's volume of water. The high hills prior to the flood increased to mountains as the earth's crust was compressed. Noah was in the ark for 10 months and 14 days, the time required for the rising of flood waters and time required for the waters to abate and flow into the much lower and deeper sea trenches. As the waters shifted into the lower elevations, there was additional earthquake activity caused by a concentration of the water weight in areas where sea depth increased, such as the Mariana Trench and along the Pacific Rim of the Asian continent. These trenches are the deepest elevations of the oceans.

With a common sense perspective, incorporating the laws of earth's physics, we can perceive a picture of tremendous and chaotic earthquake activity during the flood. Therefore all hill elevations prior to the flood had elevations that did not exceed 840 meters (2,756 feet) because all the hills were covered by the flood to a depth of 15 cubits (20 feet). Mountain elevations of today occurred during and after the flood as equilibrium between expansive and compressive forces adjusted for stabilization of the earth's crust.

Noah's Time in the Ark - The Flood Prevailed for 150 Days

The day Noah entered the ark - Genesis 7:11 (NIV) - In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, on the seventeenth day of the second month -- on that day all the springs of the great deep burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened.

The day Noah came out of the ark - Genesis 8:13-16 (NIV) - By the first day of the first month of Noah's six hundred and first year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was dry. (14) By the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was completely dry. (15) Then God said to Noah, (16) "Come out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and their wives.

Noah was in the ark for 10 months and 14 days. The flood prevailed (remained) for 150 days - Genesis 7:24 (KJV) - And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days. The rest of the time Noah was in the ark, the ground was drying out and plant life was growing. Then God called to Noah and told him to leave the ark.


Additional Evidence for the Flood Waters Compressing the Earth's Surface

How much pressure was exerted on the earth's surface when the canopy collapsed? Well, it can't be calculated because we don't know how much water was placed above the firmament. But, to illustrate the tremendous pressure exerted by the water canopy falling back to the earth, the following example is presented -

An example of illustrating forty days and nights of torrential rain, a very conservative estimation of torrential rain sufficient to make a significant contribution to flooding the earth could be 12" per hour. I personally believe the actually amount of water that fell during the 40 days of rain was much greater.

Forty days and nights of rain at 12" per hour would yield a depth of water equal to 24 feet per day. During the forty days of rain this would equal 960 feet of water, equivalent to 10.9 % of the existing sphere depth of 2,686 meters (8,810 feet), the same sphere depth that existed prior to the dividing of the waters. This translates to one fifth of the sphere depth. Obviously, using 12" of rain per hour (10.9% of total water volume) is a very conservative example for illustrating the amount of water God placed above the firmament. This example of flooding considers only the 40 days and nights of rain fall and does not consider all the water gushing upward from the earth's crust (bowels) from the compression of the earth's crust by the weight of the water from the collapsing canopy. The waters in the bowels of the earth were already on the earth and would not contribute to increasing the compressive burden on the earth's crust, but would contribute to the flood level.

Data concerning actual sea water depths today -

Excerpt from Encyclopedia Britannia, "Ocean" - The average depth of the ocean (today's oceans) is 3.7 km (2.3 miles). From the continental shelf break, which commonly lies at depths between 100 and 200 m (330 to 660 feet), the continental slope descends to extensive abyssal plains. Approximately 75 percent of the ocean floor falls within the depth range of 3 to 6 km, and only about 1 percent lies deeper. The deepest waters occur in relatively narrow trenches, mostly associated with Pacific island arcs, the maximum depth recorded being 11,034 m in the Mariana Trench.

Even using this conservative analysis of rain fall, at 62.43 pounds per cubic foot of water, the gravitational force or weight of the rain (960 feet deep) upon the earth's surface would be 59,932 pounds (30 tons) per square foot column . This is tremendous additional weight and pressure applied to the earth's crust. Under this compressive force continental plates would collide head-on with tectonic plates. Subduction physics reveal there would be tremendous volcanic activity.

Plate Collisions: (Excerpt from Encyclopedia Britannica). It is in subduction zones that the difference between plates carrying oceanic and continental crust can be most clearly seen. If both plates have oceanic edges, either one may dive beneath the other; but, if one carries a continent, the greater buoyancy of the continent prevents this edge from sinking. Thus, invariably the oceanic plate with no continent is the one subducted. Continents are permanently preserved in this manner, while the ocean floor continuously renews itself. If plates possess a continental edge, neither can be subducted and a complex sequence of events from crumpling to under-and-over thrusting raises lofty mountain ranges. Much later, after these ranges have been largely leveled by erosion, their remains continue as a reminder that this is the “suture” where continents were once fused.

The Flood Created Deep Sediment Layers From Erosion of Soil From Lofty Mountains

Author's synopsis - The very deep layer of soil that was on top of the bed rock was a part of the upward thrust of the earth plates which caused the high mountain ranges. This soil eroded with the retreat of the flood waters. Water laden soil caused landslides as the plates thrust upward. Afterward, the soil continuously eroded for years with each rain. This eroded sediment settled in the lower areas creating massive flat plains around the mountain ranges. This accumulation of soil and sediment buried the dinosaurs and formed sedimentary rock layers containing dinosaur fossils. Fossils are only found in sedimentary rock layers.

The erosion of soil from the upward thrust edges of the plates (tops of mountains) exposed the bedrock of the mountains which is seen today at the higher parts of mountain ranges. This is referred to as the "tree line" meaning there's insufficient soil for trees to form roots.

Since there was no rain prior to Noah's flood there was no erosion of the high hills and therefore no sedimentary rock formations. All sedimentary rock was formed during and after Noah's flood. Thus, all dinosaur fossils are found in sedimentary rock, indicating the dinosaurs died in Noah's flood.

Author's comments on Gap Theory Observation (click here)


The Upward Thrust of Mt. Ararat Lifted Noah's Ark. This is how the ark came to rest atop the mountain.

The place of the ark's landing is Mt. Ararat according to the Bible. Mt. Ararat's elevation prior to the flood must have been less than 2,276 meters (sphere depth of the ocean at 2,686 meters) because it was covered with fifteen cubits of water (approximately 26 feet). It is evident that the mountains were formed during the flood, including Mt. Ararat. The current elevations of Mt. Ararat's two peaks are as follows - Little Ararat at 12,782 feet and Great Ararat at 16,784 feet. So, it evident that there was tremendous volcanic and earthquake activity during Noah's days in the ark, a time period of 10 months.

Author's synopsis - Many scholars do not believe Noah's Ark is positioned on the top of Mt. Ararat because there's insufficient volume of water on the earth today to have covered it's peak of 16,784 feet and still cover the entire planet at the same time. To them this scenario is too much of a stretch. On the other hand, when considering Mt. Ararat was formed during the flood and eventually rose up beneath the Ark during the 10 months and 14 days that Noah was in the Ark, then the ark's landing on Mt. Ararat is understood. I believe it is prudent and important to perceive today's high mountain elevations forming during Noah's flood.

If bible scholars would not doubt the scriptures and seek to understand what happen using the law of physics, maybe their eyes could be open to the flood as being factual. If so, their whole perspective of God's Word would forever be changed and they would be blessed! The theory of evolution will be trumped by the laws of physics and Biblical creation would remain at the forefront of scientific understanding.

This precept of mountain formation is the greatest reason for not believing in the gap theory. It appears that the growth of the mountains and changes in the earth's surface contour occurred in two phases, after the dividing of the waters in Verse 6 (after the gap theory) and during and after Noah's flood.


How did God get the canopy of water to fall within the forty day and night time period?

Author's comments on Water Canopy for discussion on water canopy magnetic polarity and how God caused the water canopy to orbit the earth (click here)

It could be God gradually weaken the magnetic polarity of the water canopy or even gradually reversing the polarity of the canopy until the water could no longer stay aloft.

The controlled release of the water canopy during the flood can be seen in the Hebrew language.

Genesis 7:11 (KJV) - In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

"Windows" (Strong's Concordance / Hebrew) #699 'arubbah (ar-oob-baw'); a lattice; (by implication) a window, dove-cot (because of the pigeon-holes), chimney (with its apertures for smoke), sluice (with openings for water).

The windows of heaven are like windows covered with lattice, allowing water to pass through gradually. Without the control of the lattice the water would fallen suddenly and all at once, which would of course crush every thing on earth including Noah and the ark. Even the earth's surface would be greatly impacted under such a great force (30 tons per square foot falling at 120 miles per hour). But, for the sake of the earth and Noah and his family, God gradually release the water canopy over a period of 40 days and nights.


The Gap Theory

The Fallacy of using Carbon-14 Dating to Determine the Age of Fossils -

The Gap Theory is a weak grasping of scriptural data meant to fit the age of the dinosaurs into Biblical data. This theory was established because gap theorists believe Carbon 14 dating methods are correct. Evolutionists and gap theorists believe Carbon 14 production and decay is scientifically based and consistent (as observed today) since the earth's creation. The affects of the water canopy on Carbon 14 production is not taken into consideration. Therefore, the Carbon 14 dating formula is flawed for determining the real age of dinosaurs. So, gap theorists should re-think their interpretation of Genesis 1:2. Acquiring a deeper understanding of the physical changes in the earth and the earth's environment caused by the dividing of the waters. The gap theorists should realize (1) Carbon 14 dating is unreliable and (2) the dinosaurs existed all over the earth during the time of the Garden of Eden, which is a small area in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Bible is true and is supported by the laws of physics!


Carbon-14 Dating Method. Is it reliable method of dating fossils?

The following discussion on Carbon 14 dating is taken from "Bone Of Contention" by Sylvia Baker; © Evangelical Press 1976

Methods used in dating fossils are formulas based in radioactive measurements. The most used method for dating fossils is the Carbon -14 method (named after the radioactive isotope of carbon). This theory of dating assumes two things -

1) That Carbon - 14 is in equilibrium in the atmosphere. Meaning, it is broken down at the same rate that it is being produced. However, calculations made to test this assumption suggest that Carbon - 14 is being produced at nearly one third faster than it is disintegrating.

2) That the ratio of Carbon -14 to ordinary carbon has always been constant.

Carbon 14 (14c) is produced as follows:

1) Cosmic rays bombard the upper atmosphere producing fast moving neutrons.

2) These neutrons collide with atmospheric nitrogen atoms producing Carbon - 14 (14c).

3) Carbon - 14, like ordinary carbon, combines with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Vegetation absorbs CO2 containing 14c during photosynthesis.

4). Since animals feed on vegetation, 14c is added to their bodies at the rate of one 14c atom in 1,000,000,000,000 atoms absorbed.

5) After death this ratio will slowly decrease, since 14c continues to decay without being replenished by feeding.

Dividing of the Waters - How the canopy of water above the firmament affects the theory of dating

The water canopy above the firmament in Genesis 1:6 shielded the earth from the radiant heat of the sun and cosmic radiation providing an environment suitable for living eternally.

This being the case, cosmic radiation would have been reflected back into the atmosphere or absorbed by the water canopy and the amount of fast moving neutrons reaching earth's atmosphere would have been significantly less. Thus, the amount of 14c would have been much less than what is being produced now. When the water canopy collapsed during the flood, the cosmic radiation reaching the earth would have greatly increased and a great increase in the production of 14c would have occurred. So, the ratio of 14c to ordinary carbon would not have been constant since the beginning. There would have been much less 14c in the atmosphere prior to the flood.

Carbon - 14 dating is reliable up to approximately 4,500 years ago.

A fossil that contains very little Carbon -14 is not necessarily of a great age, since the animal may have lived prior to the flood under the water canopy.

(End of quote)


Thus, Carbon -14 dating is an inaccurate method of dating fossils and other materials older than 4,500 years. It is therefore prudent to not take Carbon -14 dating as scientific fact.

Today's Carbon -14 dating formula does not take into consideration the existence of the water canopy. Was there a water canopy? Yes! Additional proof to follow in this document.

Whether or not the gap theory is a correct view of the beginning of creation is of little importance when considering the intent and counsel of God's Word, which is the birth and building up of faith in God as the Creator and Provider of eternal life. Genesis is not written in a way as to satisfy the reader's curiosity. Else, I believe Genesis would include a scientific presentation of the beginning.

When the believer hears the many controversies concerning the beginning of the heavens and earth, it is important to remember God authored Genesis to provide an understanding of man's creation and the relationship between man and God. The physical aspects of the original creation are briefly mentioned and was pertinent to providing a physical environment for man. But, detailed information is not provided. None the less, some scholars seek to gather enough data from Genesis for a deeper perspective of earth's creation. To those seekers, this rest of this document is dedicated.


The Gap Theory's Weak Scriptural Foundation

There are many scholarly opinions concerning the beginning physical environment of the earth. Some believe the Bible tells us the earth was destroyed by a flood and became empty and void in Genesis 1:2 (KJV). This particular interpretation of the above scripture established the "gap" theory. This interpretation assumes there was an undocumented time period between Verse 1 and Verse 2 when the dinosaurs existed. Then there was a flood in which the dinosaurs became extinct. The basis for this interpretation is centered on the Hebrew word for "was" in Genesis 1:2.

Earth BeginningGenesis 1:2 (KJV) - And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

"Was" - (Strong's Concordance - Hebrew) #1961 - hayah (haw-yaw); a primitive root; to exist, i.e. be or become, come to pass.

The Hebrew root word "hayah" means to "exist", "be or become." So, it is not specifically required that the proper interpretation state the earth was formless and void at the exact time of the creation in Verse 1 or that it became formless and void many, many years later. Hayah can be used in both ways. Scholars attempting to fit the dinosaurs into the scriptures choose to believe the earth became formless and void, opening the door to another earth formation prior to Genesis 1:2.

Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on Genesis 1:2:

Keil & Delitzsch Commentary - "And the earth was waste and void." The alliterative nouns tohu vabohu, the etymology of which is lost, signify waste and empty (barren), but not laying waste and desolating. Whenever they are used together in other places (Isa 34:11; Jer 4:23), they are taken from this passage; but tohu alone is frequently employed as synonymous with 'ayin (OT:369), non-existence, and hebel (OT:1893), nothingness (Isa 40:17,23; 49:4). The coming earth was at first waste and desolate, a formless, lifeless mass, rudis indigestaque moles, hu'lee a'morfos (Wisdom 11:17) or cha'os.

Keil & Delitzsch are in the group of scholars which adhere to the interpretation that the earth was "formless and void" at the time of the original creation. They do not believe the earth became formless and void at a later time, prior to day one of God's creative work of rearranging things for the habitat of man, plants and animals. This view of creation does not allow another time for the existence of the dinosaurs other the time of Adam in pre-flood earth.

If a scholar believes the science of dating materials is accurate and thinks dinosaurs lived millions and millions years ago, then the gap theory provides a way to fit the dinosaurs into the biblical history. I believe this is the underlying rationale for the gap theory. But, what if there is a problem with the dating method? If so, attempting to fit dinosaurs into Genesis 1:2 becomes a muddled endeavor.

The gap theory presents a few interesting observations. These are additional comments not previously discussed.

Gap Theorists believe the dinosaurs existed between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. Their theory suggests the flood waters of Genesis 1:2 destroyed the dinosaurs. If the gap theory is correct, then there had to be land for dinosaurs and plant life. So, from where did all the water required for flooding the earth come, when the earth became void and without form.

Was there another water canopy under which the dinosaurs and plant life existed? Was there a previous water canopy prior to Genesis 1:2?

This hypothetical picture requires a belief that this first canopy was collapsed and the earth was flooded in the same way that Noah's flood occurred. This picture presents a problem because returning the water to the earth to eradicated all life would have compressed the earth's crust and caused tremendous changes in the earth's land elevations. There would be mountains that could not have been covered by the volume of water on the earth today. So, the water in Genesis 1:2 would not have covered the surface of the planet. Some land mass would have been present. Then dry land would have been present prior to Genesis 1:9. This of course would create another controversy concerning the creation.

Was there no water canopy prior to Genesis 1:2?

This hypothetical picture requires a belief that sufficient water was lacking in the original creation of heaven and earth, so God added additional water volume when the time arrived for eradicating the dinosaurs. In this picture the earth would have been exposed to the sun's radiant heat and cosmic radiation. Plant life would be the same size and in abundance as it is today. Which of course is insufficient for large animal sustenance. Additionally, the polar areas would have been iced over and not suitable for warm blooded animal survival.

Gap Theorists fail to study the physical science of the earth as a result of God dividing the waters. Having accepted Carbon-14 as a reliable scientific measurement of time, they attempt to fit the dinosaurs into biblical scriptures concerning the beginning before God divided the waters. But, they do not realize Carbon 14 dating is faulty concerning the time of pre-flood earth because the water canopy affected the amount of Carbon 14 naturally produced and absorbed by plant life, which is then eaten by animals and absorbed by their bones.


Second Heaven and Earth

Up to this point in the study we can see the first heaven and earth in two phases, pre-flood and post-flood configurations. Now the study will look at the re-creation of heaven and earth in Revelation 21:1 (KJV) - And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

One of the great influences for believing the water canopy existed prior to the flood is seen in the formation of the second heaven and earth in the book of Revelation. What God did in the beginning when He created heaven and earth, He will do in the end of time when He re-creates heaven and earth. The first event parallels the last event!

The Earth's Environment When God Returns 

God reveals cold and heat; summer and winter will follow after the flood in the following declaration in Genesis 8:22 (NIV) - "As long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night will never cease."

"As long as the earth endures" reveals post flood earth environment will exist until the new heavens and new earth are created in Revelation 21:1. There are three subjects in the above mentioned verse - heaven, earth and the sea. All three subjects are environmental elements. The new earth will not have a sea. Since the new heaven and new earth will be structured to accommodate eternal life on the earth, then an environment similar to the one in the Garden of Eden will be re-created.

"New" (Strong's Concordance - Greek Lexicon) #2537 kainos (kahee-nos'); of uncertain affinity; new (especially in freshness; while #3501 is properly so with respect to age)

#3501 neos (neh'-os); including the comparative neoteros (neh-o'-ter-os); a primary word; "new", i.e. (of persons) youthful, or (of things) fresh; figuratively, regenerate

The new heaven and earth will be a regeneration of the existing heaven and earth. God will take what has always been here and reform it to make a suitable environment for eternal life on the planet. He does not add any additional material/physical elements.

Then God will return to the earth with the New Jerusalem. However, the physical environment of the new earth will be an improvement over the one in the Garden of Eden, as God uses all the sea water, as the new earth environment will have no sea. He does not divide the waters, as He did in the beginning. He uses all the sea water.

Where did all the sea water go? I believe God uses the waters again to form another canopy over the earth, New Jerusalem and the glory of God. The canopy will be positioned in the same orbit as the first canopy in Genesis. Both the first water canopy and the new water canopy are for the purpose of establishing an eternal environment where no death or decay are present. Only this time God uses all the sea water forming a canopy through which the light of the sun, moon or stars cannot penetrate, as they did in the Garden of Eden.

Revelation 21:23 (KJV) - And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.

Revelation 22:5 (KJV) - And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever.

What would be the depth of the water canopy over the New Jerusalem and the earth?

The canopy would require an orbital altitude above the earth's surface sufficient to cover over the New Jerusalem.

Revelation 21:16 (KJV) - And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.

Using today's table of measures eight furlongs equal one mile. Therefore, the New Jerusalem was 1500 miles X 1500 miles X 1500 miles

To calculate the area of the canopy will require adding to the diameter of the earth a minimum distance of 2125 miles, an approximate distance sufficient for an arch segment of the canopy to cover the top corners of the 1500 mile cube of the New Jerusalem. 

Excerpt from Encyclopedia BritannicaThe fifth largest planet of the solar system, the Earth has an equatorial circumference of 40,076 km (24,902 miles), an equatorial radius of 6,378 km (3,963 miles), a polar radius of 6,357 km (3,950 miles), and a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,960 miles). The planet's total surface area is roughly 509,600,000 square km (197,000,000 square miles), of which about 29 percent, or 148,000,000 square km (57,000,000 square miles), is land. The balance of the surface is covered by the oceans and smaller seas. The Earth has a mass of 5.976 ´ 1027 grams (or roughly 6 ´ 1021 metric tons) and a mean density of 5.517 grams per cubic cm (0.2 pound per cubic inch).

The new mean radius of the canopy would be 6,085 miles (3,960 miles existing radius of the earth plus an additional 2,125 miles). The surface area of the canopy would than be approximately 303,000,000 square miles, an increase of 106,000,000 squares miles greater than the earth's existing surface, mathematically determined using a reciprocal ratio calculation correlating radius to surface area.

Today there is enough water to cover the mean surface area of the earth (197,000,000 square miles) to a depth of 8,810 feet. Therefore, if God removes the sea and uses all the water to establish a new canopy (303,000,000 square miles), the depth of the new canopy of water would be approximately 5,728 feet, again using a reciprocal calculation.

If the depth of the water canopy is approximately 5,728 feet, then the light of the sun, moon and stars could not penetrate to light the earth. All light from the sun and moon would be refracted or reflected back into space. If one were on the moon looking at the earth, the planet would have an appearance like a smooth and brilliant deep blue surface because there would be no clouds. So, the earth's canopy would appear as a brilliant jewel.

What are the scriptures that reveal a canopy over the New Jerusalem?

New Heaven and EarthIsaiah 4:2-6 (NIV) In that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the survivors in Israel. (3) Those that are left in Zion, who remain in Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are recorded among the living in Jerusalem. (4) The Lord will wash away the filth of the women of Zion; he will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire. (5) Then the LORD will create over all of Mount Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night; over all the glory will be a canopy. (6) It will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the storm and rain.

Verse 2 & 4 - “In that day”; “The Lord will …..cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire” – These scriptures speak of the day God will judge and cleanse Jerusalem. This is of course, the end time judgment.

Verse 5-“Mount Zion” - (Strong's Concordance / Hebrew) #6726 Tsiyown (tsee-yone'); the same (regularly) as #6725; Tsijon (as a permanent capital), a mountain of Jerusalem.

Mount Zion is a mountain in Jerusalem and is noted as the permanent capital of Israel in “that day”. During the millennium Jerusalem will be the permanent capital of all the earth. This precept will never change. Even as the throne of David was established forever, Jerusalem is established forever as a permanent capital of Israel. After the millennium period passes, God will come to the earth with the New Jerusalem and it will also be the everlasting permanent capital and seat of government in the earth. The New Jerusalem will be positioned and located above today's Jerusalem and Temple Mount. It will be the new Mount Zion.

#6725 tsiyuwn (tsee-yoon'); in the sense of conspicuousness [compare #5329]; a monumental or guiding pillar.

Mount Zion will be a conspicuous monumental guiding structure for all the people who survived the end time judgment. The New Jerusalem will be conspicuous as it will rise 1500 miles above the surface of the earth. 

#5329 natsach (naw-tsakh'); a primitive root; properly, to glitter from afar, i.e. to be eminent; to be permanent.

Mount Zion / New Jerusalem will permanently glitter from a far distance with the glory of God, as mentioned in verse 5.

Revelation 21:23 (KJV) - And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. The glory of God and the Lamb will light the entire planet.

Revelation 22:5 (KJV) - And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever. The glory of God thru the Lamb will radiant beneath the canopy and reflect back to the earth off the inside surface of the water canopy covering the entire surface of the earth. There will be no night. No one will need a candle.

Obviously, Isaiah is seeing into the future when the end time judgment and purging of those who reject God is complete and God returns to the earth with the New Jerusalem (Mt. Zion).

Verse 5 (Con't) - “Over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night." The cloud of smoke and pillar of fire by night, traditionally, was the way God protected Israel during their stay in the desert, having left Egypt. The cloud of smoke and pillar of fire was instrumental in Israel's exodus from Egypt.

Exodus 14:19-20 (NIV) - Then the angel of God, who had been traveling in front of Israel's army, withdrew and went behind them. The pillar of cloud also moved from in front and stood behind them, (20) coming between the armies of Egypt and Israel.

The cloud and pillar of fire protected the Israelites as they departed from Egypt. The covering of the cloud was a defense against Israel’s enemies. When the Israelites settled in one place the cloud of smoke and pillar of fire became their covering of protection.

Exodus 13:21-22 (NIV) - By day the LORD went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night. (22) Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night left its place in front of the people.

The cloud and pillar of fire guided them in the day and night as they journeyed through the desert, protecting them from their enemies and protecting them from harsh environmental elements. The pillar of fire was the Holy Spirit. Neither the cloud nor the pillar of fire ever left its place of covering the people. It was permanently placed for the duration of their journey and habitation in the desert. 

The precept of God covering over His people with divine protection and provisional care had its origin in Genesis when God made a covenant covenant with Abraham, then in Exodus after Moses commanded the people to sprinkle the lamb’s blood on the door posts and frames of each house. The blood covering was also a canopy of protection against death, even as Jesus' blood covering is a canopy of protection against death. Likewise, God will cover over the New Jerusalem city with a canopy of protection from death caused by the physical elements of cosmic and solar radiation. It will be the eternal habitat for God's family.

Verse 5 & 6 (Con't) - “Over all the glory will be a canopy”……"Shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the storm and rain." After the end time judgment and cleansing of Israel, the Lord will establish a canopy over the glory of God. The glory of God will be beneath the water canopy. This canopy will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the storm and rain because it blocks out the radiant heat of the sun. Even as it has always been, God's canopies establish a refuge and hiding place for God’s people.

The KJV uses the word “defense” instead of “canopy”- 

“Defense” – (Strong’s Concordance – Hebrew) #2646 chuppah (khoop-paw'); from #2645; a canopy.

Use in KJV - chamber, closet, defense.

#2645 chaphah (khaw-faw'); a primitive root; to cover; by implication, to veil, to encase, protect.

Use in KJV - ceil, cover, overlay.

Canopy is a good word to illustrate the future structure of the earth, after God recreates the earth to provide a physical environment for eternal life. The canopy will be a covering of defense against harmful physical elements from the cosmos. The canopy will overlay the New Jerusalem and the glory of God radiating from within the city. This is a tremendous perception of covering over the New Jerusalem, in which, God and Christ are there. This will be a environmental canopy for eternal life. The earth will be a refuge and hiding place in the universe. The new earth will be like the first earth under the water canopy. There will be no weather, no polar ice caps, no deserts, plant life will cover the entire plant and thrive under the light of the glory of God. No one will be short of the glory of God! All will walk with God the Father and Christ Jesus, the Lamp of God's glory.

Hold on to this vision, we are closer than most scholars can perceive.


By incorporating known laws of physics one can see how the physical eternal environment for the Garden of Eden created. Having a precept of what might have happen to that environment after Noah's flood and seeing how God may create a new heaven and earth by placing water above the firmament once again, provides a sensible perspective and vision of how the eternal habitat for God's family might be physically structured.

In the final analysis having a sensible perspective of the future earth and heaven does edify faith in the Word of God as being absolute, lacking nothing. The Bible has no contradictions and no controversies. Contradiction and controversy is form in the minds of men due to a lack of knowledge.

Hopefully, this study contributes to forming an overall big picture of the Bible and the Bible becomes more clear and strengthens your faith in God as the sole Author.