quick study is an excerpt from Volume
1 - The Beginning - Adam's
Spiritual and Physical Environments -
See chapter 4.
the Beginning - Earth's Created Physical Environment
following discussions will provide a simple, but in-depth
analysis of the earth's beginning (creation and environment),
including today's earth and the future earth. This study
will provide an analytical study using physical sciences
of earth to reveal the difference between pre-flood and
post flood earth. The science of physics laws and the
Bible's account of creation begin to merge into a comprehensive
big picture of the beginning and the theory of evolution
fades because it lacks proof.
the Eyes of Your Understanding,
- New Beginning and a New World Order
for additional insight to
the post-flood earth environment. Go to chapter 1.
basis of this study is centered the understanding that prior
to the fall of Adam, the original state of earth and Adam
were perfect and would exist forever. All that God created
in the six days of creation was perfect and created to be
an eternal creation, including the earth and it's atmosphere.
The fall of Adam changed the original spiritual and physical
configurations because death and decay entered the environment.
death and decay entered into the original creation of earth,
it became necessary to re-create the heavens and earth after
the millennium reign of Christ. So, this current phase of
the heavens and earth is phase one of a two phase plan.
The new heaven and earth, is re-created in Revelation
21:1. The second phase exists from immediately after
the millennium period throughout eternity where the body
of Christ will live with the Lord.
Peter 3:12-13 (KJV) - Looking for and hasting unto the coming
of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall
be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat?
(13) Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for
new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness.
new heaven and new earth will be a place where the righteous
family of God will dwell and coincides with God returning
to the earth.
era of time for the first heaven and earth is a time for
God birthing His family, transforming them into His likeness
and afterwards maturing them to full glorification as they
live with Christ for a thousand years. Then Father God re-creates
heaven and earth and returns to the earth with the holy
city, new Jerusalem.
Re-created Heaven and Earth Configuration is Much Like the
to better understand the original creation prior to and
after the flood of Noah's time will be influenced by the
scripture concerning the new heaven and new earth - Revelation
21:1 (KJV) - And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for
the first heaven and the first earth were
passed away; and there was no more sea. This
scripture clearly implies there was only one earth and heaven
in existence until its re-creation after the millennium
era of time. We currently live in the first heaven and earth,
although there have been post-flood changes in the environment.
are bible scholars that believe there are three phases of
heaven and earth. They believe the first phase existed
during the age of the dinosaurs. Then, prior to the "dividing
of the waters" (prior to Genesis 1:6),
there was a flood in which the dinosaurs became extinct
in Genesis 1:2. Then God began the second phase
by reforming heaven and earth in Genesis 1:6-31 for
mankind. Then there is the third phase, God re-creating
heaven and earth after the millennium.
effect, these scholars have made the first heaven and earth
mentioned in Revelation 21:1, a two phase perception,
rather than a single phase. This interpretation of scriptures
created the Gap Theory which will be discussed later in
this study. Gap theorists believe there was a heaven and
earth prior to Genesis 1:2 upon which the dinosaurs
one catches a glimpse of the earth's creation, the book
of Genesis takes a new perspective of truth and physical
science supports the context of Genesis.
one has a perception of the reality of the Bible, his or
her relationship with God's Word ascends to new levels of
faith. The Bible becomes a more tangible Word from God.
first creative act that began the formation of the earth's
physical environment in Genesis 1:6 was the dividing
of the waters which covered the entire planet.
The Dividing of the Waters
- Creation of the Water Canopy
The creation of the water canopy is a monumental event in
forming the physics of the environment on the earth. Understanding
these changes will provide insight to original creation
of the environment and also provide a common sense perspective
between the Bible's account of creation and today's earthly
physics we know as factual.
most popular opinion concerning the physical environment
for man, animals and plant life did not begin until after
God divided the waters on the second day - Genesis
1:6-7 (KJV) - And God said, Let there be a firmament
(heaven or sky) in the midst of the waters, and
let it divide the waters from the waters. (7) And
God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were
under the firmament from the waters which were above the
firmament: and it was so.
Prior to that time the earth was formless and void and covered
with water. God did not cause dry land to appear until Verse
1:9-10 (NIV) - And God said, "Let the water
under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry
ground appear." And it was so. (10) God called the
dry ground "land," and the gathered waters he
the water under the sky be gathered to one place"
gathering of the water did not take place until the third
day after the dividing of the waters on the second day in
Genesis 1:6. Keep this in mind, gathering of the
water on the third day was made possible by the dividing
of he waters on the second day. When God removed some of
the water and placed it above the firmament, the earth's
surface changed and dry land appeared.
happen to the earth's surface to make the water gather to
one place so dry land would appear?
dividing of the waters was paramount to creating the proper
environment for man, animal and plant life to exist eternally.
This event resulted in the appearance of dry land in the
form of hills, valleys and surface streams and springs of
water flowing to the earth's surface for support of all
life. Earth's land mass was no longer covered by water.
Therefore this part of the study will take scriptures as
they are sequentially presented and consider the earth's
environment after the dividing of the waters and prior to
the flood of Noah's time, which changed the environment
Are the Primary Physics of the Original Earth After the
Waters Were Divided?
study incorporates some of the many laws of physics. I am
a believer who believes God does not violate His laws of
physics when He forms or changes the earth or creates a
new heaven and new earth in the book of Revelation. I believe
God included all material elements for the earth in the
beginning which are needed for the habitat of man, animal
and plant throughout all biblical time. God never comes
back to the earth and adds additional elements, including
the end time when He creates a new heaven and earth.
material elements may have been added in small portions
when meteorites impacted the earth. But, these meteorite
elements did not disrupted the original law of physics set
in place by God. Physical laws tells us that matter cannot
be destroyed. Molecular structure can be decomposed and
re-arranged but matter (atoms and particles) cannot be destroyed.
Material form can change, but the mass remains the same.
So, all matter on the earth in the beginning is still on
the earth today. This includes hydrogen and oxygen which
together form water - H2O.
I am not a physicist I recall the physics and law of opposing
forces. There are two opposing forces at work in
the earth. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces
was affected by the dividing of the waters on the second
day and was the major factor involved in changing the original
formless environment. These physical alterations had a impact
on the contour of planet's surface, forming hills and valleys
on the following day.
There is the force of magnetism and gravity. This inward
force draws all material elements towards the center of
the earth's molten iron core.
molten iron core of the earth creates a gravational inward
pull on all atomic matter. Weight of all material on the
earth is determined by the varying number of particles in
in the structure of atoms. The greater the number of particles
in an atom, the greater its density and the greater its
weight because there's a stronger draw on the more dense
atoms than on the less dense atoms. This is referred to
as the atomic weight of the atom. The atomic weight of each
molecule is listed on the Periodic Chart we all studied
in high school physics class.
gravity the earth's material would be weightless. For example,
In the outer atmosphere materials become weightless due
to the weak gravitational force. Both metal and paper alike
are weightless outside the earth's gravitational pull. But,
when gravity becomes a force in the scenario, then metal
is heavier than paper because atoms forming the metal molecule
are denser than the atoms forming the paper molecule.
the electromagnetic force that binds particles (neutrons,
protons, quarks, etc) that form the atoms in the metal and
paper materials is still present in a non-gravity weightless
environment. Varying types of particles orbit around the
nucleus of the atom by an electromagnetic force. Atoms bond
together to form molecules by an electromagnetic force.
Then gravity draws all atoms and molecules towards the core
or center of the earth.
an electro-magnetical force atoms and molecules would not
exist. Electromagnetism is the bonding force between sub-atomic
particles that form atoms, which form molecules, which form
material elements in the earth and molecular elements forming
the atmosphere's gases. Magnetism is the bonding force that
form the earth's elements and the earth's atmosphere.
is the main force at work in the earth - magnetism is generated
by molten iron in the core of the earth and creates gravity.
All matter in the earth and above the surface of the earth
is magnetically drawn toward the earth's core.
the core of the earth is a place of extreme heat created
by fusion activity. This extreme heat creates an outward
thermal force or pressure which opposes the gravational
inward pull of the earth's mantel and crust.
heat creates an internal pressure inside the earth and radiates
outwards and imposes an expansive thermal force (pressure)
on the earth's crust. When the outward thermal pressure
is greater than the inward gravitational pull on the earth's
crust, the crust will expand (the planet swells); resulting
in faults and cracks in the earth's surface. Why? Gravity's
pull or draw on the material weight of the earth's crust
resists thermal pressure and places a boundary on (confines)
thermal expansion. A point of equilibrium between the two
opposing forces exists when the power of the forces are
equal. Equilibrium means the forces are stable. But, when
one force becomes greater than its opposing force, the earth's
crust trembles until a new point of equilibrium is reached.
If the equilibrium changes through temporary fluctuations
in either of the opposing forces, the earth's crust will
respond accordingly. Increases in the expansive or inward
force cause varying degrees of intensity in earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions. Internal expansive pressure is released
through established portals (volcanoes) and faults until
the excess pressure is released. An example of this type
of fluctuation is presented in the following article -
Journal-Constitution newspaper dated Tuesday, August 3,
melting of Alaska's glaciers is increasing the chances of
future earthquakes there, NASA scientists reported Monday.
of warming in the Arctic have triggered the retreat of at
least 85 percent of Alaska's 1,500 glaciers. Scientists
say the reduced burden of ice on the land makes the
underlying cause of earthquakes…….
Alaskan quakes are associated with the state's more than
40 active volcanoes. Most, however, are the result of strains
built up by the collision of the massive tectonic plates
that make up the Earth's crust - forces that may be moderated
by an overburden of ice.
know historically that when big ice masses start to retreat,
the number of earthquakes increases," says Jeanne
Sauber, a geophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center……"
scientists are observing increased earthquake and volcanic
activity due to a reduction of material weight of the ice
when the glaciers melt and the water flows into the seas.
Material weight in the form of water (melted glacier ice)
is distributed to other areas of the earth's crust, allowing
thermal pressure to push through the crust of the earth
through faults and portals beneath the glaciers (earthquakes).
Shortly afterwards, the earth will rest in this area of
the planet. So, although the earth is in a state of continuous
flux (regionally) during expansive pressure build-up and
release, equilibrium remains constant (globally) because
material weight of the crust does not change. Occasionally,
the earth has to exhale (erupt), so to speak. However, when
the weight of the crust is increased or decreased, then
catastrophic changes take place.
weight of the earth's crust was changed dramatically by
the dividing of the waters on the second day, and then changed
again with the return of the water during Noah's flood.
the effects of these two opposing forces on the earth's
crust are paramount to understanding what happen the the
earth's pre-flood and post flood environments.
Changes in Land Elevations During the Dividing of the Waters
God dived the waters in Genesis 1:6 there was a great
reduction in the weight of water (burden) on the crust of
the earth. This reduced weight altered the equilibrium between
opposing forces and the crust became unstable. The earth's
crust expanded, slightly increasing the diameter of the
earth until the two opposing forces reached a new equilibrium.
Expansion of the earth's mantle caused the crust to crack,
forming the first ever
tectonic plates and continents. Volcanic activity
occurred and lava oozed through the cracks. The overflowing
lava formed hills along the many opened seams or faults
in the crust. But, there were no high mountains created
during this first time expansion of the crust. It was in
Noah's time of the flood when high mountains were created
as the crust was compressed and continents collided
with tectonic plates. Compression of the crust is
many times more catastrophic than expansion of the
the dividing of the waters caused hills to form and allowed
water to flowed into the bowels of the earth through open
seams in the crust. The alteration in the earth's surface
contour caused the remaining water of the sea to accumulate
in hill valleys and sea trenches. Concurrently, dry land
appeared and a new equilibrium was reached. Dry land would
not have occurred apart from the dividing of the waters.
There any Weather Under the Water Canopy?
most interesting thing about the altered environment is
realizing the water canopy above the sky blocked out the
radiant heat of the sun along with cosmic and solar radiation.
Weather phenomenon as we know it today did not exist under
radiant heat of the sun is blocked and could not reach the
earth's surface. Environmental temperature was determined
by the canopy trapping the heat of the earth. Temperature
was the same over the entire surface of the planet.
Weather Conditions between Pre-flood and Post-flood Environments
as we experience today, is caused by radiant heat from the
sun. Temperatures vary as angles of radiant heat contacting
the surface vary. The direct angle (perpendicular to the
sun's position) creates the equator. North and south of
the equator the radiant heat varies as radiant angles change.
Thus, the equator is the hottest area and the north and
south poles are coldest. The poles are iced over and the
equator's heat creates the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic
of Capricorn. Between the two tropic areas is the greatest
degree of evaporation and rain.
in Air Temperature
heated air between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of
Capricorn collides with the colder air from the polar regions
contributing to weather phenomenon as we know it today.
in Water Temperature
warm waters of the tropical areas mixing with the cooler
waters in the polar areas create ocean currents which also
contribute to turbulent weather conditions. The turbulence
of ocean currents cause some areas of the earth's surface
to have unpredictable and inconsistent weather conditions,
resulting in deserts, ice and snow storms, hurricanes, tornados,
water canopy blocked the sun's radiant heat. Therefore,
there was no equator or polar ice caps. The earth would
be encased in a huge terrarium, so to speak. The entire
surface of the earth would have a constant tropical type
environment because environmental temperatures would be
generated by the earth, not the sun.
plant and animal life would be protected from harmful cosmic
and solar radiation. Plant and animals would grow to very
large sizes because of the absence of harmful weather and
abundance of food. The environment would be perfect for
dinosaur and human life.
prior to Noah's flood rain had not appeared on the earth.
Under the water canopy, it would have been impossible for
rain to occur because there was no weather to create evaporation
and condensation conditions. The absence of rain denotes
the absence of all weather phenomenon (hot and cold temperate
environment with winds).
Ground and Plant LIfe Was Watered By a Mist
2:5-6 (KJV) - And every plant of the field before it was
in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew:
for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth,
and there was not a man to till the ground. (6) But there
went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face
of the ground.
order for the mist from the earth to water the whole
face of the ground (earth) then the heat of the sun
did not "burn off" the mist. Thus, the mist had
to be protected from the radiant heat of the sun. The mist
was a constant part of the environment of the earth under
the water canopy, much like a terrarium.
Changes in Land Elevations During the Flood of Noah's Time
- The Formation of Mountains
for the Existence of the Water Canopy Which Returned to
The following scriptures validate no rain occurring prior
to the flood.
9:15-17 (KJV) - And I will remember my covenant, which is
between me and you and every living creature of all flesh;
and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy
all flesh. (16) And the bow shall be in the cloud;
and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting
covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh
that is upon the earth. (17) And God said unto Noah, This
is the token of the covenant, which I have established
between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.
waters shall no more become a flood" - This
phrase indicates this to be a unique statement because the
flood was a first time event. Therefore, when God said there
would never be another flood, it too is unique. With increased
post-flood mountain elevations, there is insufficient water
volume on the earth to ever flood the earth again.
shall be in the cloud", "Token of the covenant"
statements are also unique because there was never a rainbow
to be seen prior to this time because there were no clouds
(evidence of condensation) and it never rained (required
for rainbow appearance). Therefore, the rainbow was a unique
post-flood sign, never seen by Noah. The sign of the rainbow
is unique to this covenant. Apart from the sign of the rainbow,
the family of Noah would have lived in fear that another
flood may come upon them. The rainbow had to be a unique
sign for steadfast faith in God's covenant.
the rainbow is seen because of the sun's rays reflecting
off prevailing water molecules in the atmosphere released
by clouds during condensation, prior to the flood there
were no rainbows. This phenomenon validates the presence
of the water canopy which prohibited weather prior to the
flood, otherwise rain would have occurred and rainbows seen.
Earth's Volume of Water Never Changes
volume of water on the earth and in the atmosphere today
is the same as it was in the beginning. As previously mentioned,
I personally believe in the beginning God included all the
elements He would ever need for future modifications of
the earth's environment.
to the Floor - How much water was on the face of the earth
from the seas? Currently, there's enough sea
water volume on the planet to cover it to a sphere depth
of 2,686 meters (8,810 feet) or 1.67 miles. Sphere depth
is based on a non-mountainous surface with no deep valleys
on the planet. This is the same condition as was in the
beginning prior to the dividing of the waters when the earth
was formless and void and water covered the entire surface
of the planet.
from Encyclopedia Britannia, "Ocean - Continental Shelf"
- When viewed from space, the predominance
of the oceans on the Earth is readily apparent. The oceans
and their marginal seas cover nearly 71 percent of the Earth's
surface, with an average depth of 3,795 meters (12,450 feet).
The exposed land occupies the remaining 29 percent of the
planetary surface and has a mean elevation of only 840 meters
(2,756 feet). Actually, all the elevated land could be
hidden under the oceans if the Earth is reduced to
a smooth sphere, it would be completely covered by a continuous
layer of seawater 2,686 meters deep. This calculation
is known as the sphere depth of the oceans and serves to
underscore the abundance of water on the Earth's surface.
contributing weight from this covering of water upon the
earth's crust would be 275 tons per square foot column (12"x12"x1.67
miles x 62.43 lbs. per cubic foot).
40 days of torrential rain returned the water above the
firmament to the earth's surface. This greatly added to
the the overall weight of the earth's crust and a new equilibrium
had to be reached. It could be said the original equilibrium
prior to the dividing of the waters was re-established.
During this adjustment of equilibrium, the earth's crust
was compressed because the weight of the returning
water to the crust was much greater than the thermal expansive
force from the core's heat. This compression of the crust
caused continents and tectonic plates to violently collide
which greatly increased mountain elevations and valley depressions.
This was the most chaotic event ever in the history of the
7:19-20 (KJV) - And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon
the earth; and all the high hills, that were under
the whole heaven, were covered. (20) Fifteen cubits upward
did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
19 uses the word "high hills" describing the waters
covering the existing pre-flood high hills. Then in verse
20 the word "mountains" is first used describing
the waters continued rising until the mountains were covered
to a depth of 15 cubits (20 feet). During the six months
of the flood prevailing rise of flood waters, elevations
of the pre-flood high hills rose into post-flood mountains,
as the earth's crust was compressed. This was a time of
great chaotic ocean turbulence caused by continent and tectonic
Flood Greatly Increased Existing Surface Elevations
- Hills became mountains and valleys became deeper.
with mountain elevations exceeding 29,000 feet above sea
level, the current mountain elevations increased considerably
during the return of the water canopy back to the earth.
Compression of the crust was a much greater force than expansion
of the crust during the dividing of the waters. Mountains
thrust upward as plates subducted beneath the edges of the
continents forming very high mountain ranges; and other
tectonic plates collided with each other (no subduction
action, just head-on collisions) forming lower mountain
elevations along the tectonic seams or fault lines.
know the flood occurred, made possible as the volume of
water on the earth today is the same as it was prior to
the dividing of water in Genesis 1:6. Today's mountain
peaks (29,000 feet +-) cannot possibly be covered by today's
volume of water. The high hills prior to the flood increased
to mountains as the earth's crust was compressed. Noah was
in the ark for 10 months and 14 days, the time required
for the rising of flood waters and time required for the
waters to abate and flow into the much lower and deeper
sea trenches. As the waters shifted into the lower elevations,
there was additional earthquake activity caused by a concentration
of the water weight in areas where sea depth increased,
such as the Mariana Trench and along the Pacific Rim of
the Asian continent. These trenches are the deepest elevations
of the oceans.
a common sense perspective, incorporating the laws of earth's
physics, we can perceive a picture of tremendous and chaotic
earthquake activity during the flood. Therefore
all hill elevations prior to the flood had elevations that
did not exceed 840 meters (2,756 feet) because all the hills
were covered by the flood to a depth of 15 cubits (20 feet).
Mountain elevations of today occurred during and after
the flood as equilibrium between expansive and compressive
forces adjusted for stabilization of the earth's crust.
Time in the Ark - The Flood Prevailed for 150 Days
day Noah entered the ark -
Genesis 7:11 (NIV) - In the six hundredth year
of Noah's life, on the seventeenth day of the second
month -- on that day all the springs of the great deep
burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened.
day Noah came out of the ark
- Genesis 8:13-16 (NIV) - By the first day of
the first month of Noah's six hundred and first
year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then
removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface
of the ground was dry. (14) By the twenty-seventh day of
the second month the earth was completely dry. (15) Then
God said to Noah, (16) "Come out of the ark,
you and your wife and your sons and their wives.
was in the ark for 10 months and 14 days. The flood prevailed
(remained) for 150 days - Genesis 7:24 (KJV) - And the
waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.
The rest of the time Noah was in the ark, the ground
was drying out and plant life was growing. Then God called
to Noah and told him to leave the ark.
Evidence for the Flood Waters Compressing the Earth's Surface
much pressure was exerted on the earth's surface when the
canopy collapsed? Well, it can't be calculated because we
don't know how much water was placed above the firmament.
But, to illustrate the tremendous pressure exerted by the
water canopy falling back to the earth, the following example
is presented -
example of illustrating forty days and nights of torrential
rain, a very conservative estimation of torrential
rain sufficient to make a significant contribution to flooding
the earth could be 12" per hour.
I personally believe the actually amount of water that fell
during the 40 days of rain was much greater.
days and nights of rain at 12" per hour would yield
a depth of water equal to 24 feet per day. During the forty
days of rain this would equal 960 feet of water, equivalent
to 10.9 % of the existing sphere depth of 2,686 meters (8,810
feet), the same sphere depth that existed prior to the dividing
of the waters. This translates to one fifth of the sphere
depth. Obviously, using 12" of rain per hour (10.9%
of total water volume) is a very conservative example
for illustrating the amount of water God placed above
the firmament. This example of flooding considers only the
40 days and nights of rain fall and does not consider all
the water gushing upward from the earth's crust (bowels)
from the compression of the earth's crust by the weight
of the water from the collapsing canopy. The waters in the
bowels of the earth were already on the earth and would
not contribute to increasing the compressive burden on the
earth's crust, but would contribute to the flood level.
concerning actual sea water depths today -
from Encyclopedia Britannia, "Ocean" -
The average depth of the ocean (today's oceans)
is 3.7 km (2.3 miles). From the continental shelf break,
which commonly lies at depths between 100 and 200 m (330
to 660 feet), the continental slope descends to extensive
abyssal plains. Approximately 75 percent of the ocean floor
falls within the depth range of 3 to 6 km, and only about
1 percent lies deeper. The deepest waters occur in relatively
narrow trenches, mostly associated with Pacific island arcs,
the maximum depth recorded being 11,034 m in the Mariana
using this conservative analysis of rain fall, at 62.43
pounds per cubic foot of water, the gravitational force
or weight of the rain (960 feet deep) upon the earth's surface
would be 59,932 pounds (30 tons) per square foot column
. This is tremendous additional weight and pressure applied
to the earth's crust. Under this compressive force continental
plates would collide head-on with tectonic plates. Subduction
physics reveal there would be tremendous volcanic activity.
(Excerpt from Encyclopedia Britannica). It
is in subduction zones that the difference between plates
carrying oceanic and continental crust can be most clearly
seen. If both plates have oceanic edges, either one may
dive beneath the other; but, if one carries a continent,
the greater buoyancy of the continent prevents this edge
from sinking. Thus, invariably the oceanic plate with no
continent is the one subducted. Continents are permanently
preserved in this manner, while the ocean floor continuously
renews itself. If plates possess a continental edge,
neither can be subducted and a complex sequence of events
from crumpling to under-and-over thrusting raises lofty
mountain ranges. Much later, after these ranges have
been largely leveled by erosion, their remains continue
as a reminder that this is the “suture” where continents
were once fused.
Flood Created Deep Sediment Layers From Erosion of Soil
From Lofty Mountains
synopsis - The very deep layer of soil that was on top
of the bed rock was a part of the upward thrust of the earth
plates which caused the high mountain ranges. This soil
eroded with the retreat of the flood waters. Water laden
soil caused landslides as the plates thrust upward. Afterward,
the soil continuously eroded for years with each rain. This
eroded sediment settled in the lower areas creating massive
flat plains around the mountain ranges. This accumulation
of soil and sediment buried the dinosaurs and formed sedimentary
rock layers containing dinosaur fossils. Fossils are only
found in sedimentary rock layers.
erosion of soil from the upward thrust edges of the plates
(tops of mountains) exposed the bedrock of the mountains
which is seen today at the higher parts of mountain ranges.
This is referred to as the "tree line" meaning
there's insufficient soil for trees to form roots.
there was no rain prior to Noah's flood there was no erosion
of the high hills and therefore no sedimentary rock formations.
All sedimentary rock was formed during and after Noah's
flood. Thus, all dinosaur fossils are found in sedimentary
rock, indicating the dinosaurs died in Noah's flood.
comments on Gap
Theory Observation (click here)
Upward Thrust of Mt. Ararat Lifted Noah's Ark.
how the ark came to rest atop the mountain.
place of the ark's landing is Mt. Ararat according to the
Bible. Mt. Ararat's elevation prior to the flood must have
been less than 2,276 meters (sphere depth of the ocean at
2,686 meters) because it was covered with fifteen cubits
of water (approximately 26 feet). It is evident that the
mountains were formed during the flood, including Mt. Ararat.
The current elevations of Mt. Ararat's two peaks are as
follows - Little Ararat at 12,782 feet and Great Ararat
at 16,784 feet. So, it evident that
there was tremendous volcanic and earthquake activity during
Noah's days in the ark, a time period of 10 months.
synopsis - Many scholars do not believe Noah's
Ark is positioned on the top of Mt. Ararat because there's
insufficient volume of water on the earth today to have
covered it's peak of 16,784 feet and still cover the entire
planet at the same time. To them this scenario is too much
of a stretch. On the other hand, when considering Mt. Ararat
was formed during the flood and eventually rose up beneath
the Ark during the 10 months and 14 days that Noah was in
the Ark, then the ark's landing on Mt. Ararat is understood.
I believe it is prudent and important to perceive
today's high mountain elevations forming during Noah's flood.
bible scholars would not doubt the scriptures and seek to
understand what happen using the law of physics, maybe their
eyes could be open to the flood as being factual. If so,
their whole perspective of God's Word would forever be changed
and they would be blessed! The theory of evolution will
be trumped by the laws of physics and Biblical creation
would remain at the forefront of scientific understanding.
precept of mountain formation is the greatest reason for
not believing in the gap theory. It appears that the growth
of the mountains and changes in the earth's surface contour
occurred in two phases, after the dividing of the waters
in Verse 6 (after the gap theory) and during and after Noah's
did God get the canopy of water to fall within the forty
day and night time period?
comments on Water
Canopy for discussion on water canopy magnetic polarity
and how God caused the water canopy to orbit the earth (click
could be God gradually weaken
the magnetic polarity of the water canopy or even gradually
reversing the polarity of the canopy until the water could
no longer stay aloft.
controlled release of the water canopy during the flood
can be seen in the Hebrew language.
7:11 (KJV) - In the six hundredth
year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth
day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of
the great deep broken up, and the windows
of heaven were opened.
(Strong's Concordance / Hebrew) #699 'arubbah
(ar-oob-baw'); a lattice; (by implication) a window,
dove-cot (because of the pigeon-holes), chimney (with its
apertures for smoke), sluice (with openings for water).
windows of heaven are like windows covered with lattice,
allowing water to pass through gradually. Without the control
of the lattice the water would fallen suddenly and all at
once, which would of course crush every thing on earth including
Noah and the ark. Even the earth's surface would be greatly
impacted under such a great force (30 tons per square foot
falling at 120 miles per hour). But, for the sake of the
earth and Noah and his family, God gradually release the
water canopy over a period of 40 days and nights.
Fallacy of using Carbon-14 Dating to Determine the Age of
Gap Theory is a weak grasping of scriptural data meant to
fit the age of the dinosaurs into Biblical data. This theory
was established because gap theorists believe Carbon 14
dating methods are correct. Evolutionists and gap theorists
believe Carbon 14 production and decay is scientifically
based and consistent (as observed today) since the earth's
creation. The affects of the water canopy on Carbon 14 production
is not taken into consideration. Therefore, the Carbon 14
dating formula is flawed for determining the real age of
dinosaurs. So, gap theorists should re-think their interpretation
of Genesis 1:2. Acquiring a deeper understanding
of the physical changes in the earth and the earth's environment
caused by the dividing of the waters. The gap theorists
should realize (1) Carbon 14 dating is unreliable and (2)
the dinosaurs existed all over the earth during the time
of the Garden of Eden, which is a small area in the area
between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Bible is true
and is supported by the laws of physics!
Carbon-14 Dating Method.
Is it reliable
method of dating fossils?
following discussion on Carbon 14 dating is taken from "Bone
Of Contention" by Sylvia Baker; © Evangelical
used in dating fossils are formulas based in radioactive
measurements. The most used method for dating fossils is
the Carbon -14 method (named after the radioactive isotope
of carbon). This theory of dating assumes two things -
That Carbon - 14 is in equilibrium in the atmosphere. Meaning,
it is broken down at the same rate that it is being produced.
However, calculations made to test this assumption suggest
that Carbon - 14 is being produced at nearly one third faster
than it is disintegrating.
That the ratio of Carbon -14 to ordinary carbon has always
14 (14c) is produced as follows:
Cosmic rays bombard the upper atmosphere producing fast
These neutrons collide with atmospheric nitrogen atoms producing
Carbon - 14 (14c).
Carbon - 14, like ordinary carbon, combines with oxygen
to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Vegetation absorbs CO2
containing 14c during photosynthesis.
Since animals feed on vegetation, 14c is added to their
bodies at the rate of one 14c atom in 1,000,000,000,000
After death this ratio will slowly decrease, since 14c continues
to decay without being replenished by feeding.
of the Waters - How the canopy of water above the firmament
affects the theory of dating
water canopy above the firmament in Genesis 1:6 shielded
the earth from the radiant heat of the sun and cosmic radiation
providing an environment suitable for living eternally.
being the case, cosmic radiation would have been reflected
back into the atmosphere or absorbed by the water canopy
and the amount of fast moving neutrons reaching earth's
atmosphere would have been significantly less. Thus, the
amount of 14c would have been much less than what is
being produced now. When the water canopy collapsed
during the flood, the cosmic radiation reaching the earth
would have greatly increased and a great increase in the
production of 14c would have occurred. So, the ratio of
14c to ordinary carbon would not have been constant since
the beginning. There would have been much less 14c in
the atmosphere prior to the flood.
- 14 dating is reliable up to approximately 4,500 years
fossil that contains very little Carbon -14 is not necessarily
of a great age, since the animal may have lived prior to
the flood under the water canopy.
Carbon -14 dating is an inaccurate method of dating fossils
and other materials older than 4,500 years. It
is therefore prudent to not take Carbon -14 dating
as scientific fact.
Carbon -14 dating formula does not take into consideration
the existence of the water canopy. Was there a water canopy?
Yes! Additional proof to follow in this document.
or not the gap theory is a correct view of the beginning
of creation is of little importance when considering the
intent and counsel of God's Word, which is the birth and
building up of faith in God as the Creator and Provider
of eternal life. Genesis is not written in a way as to satisfy
the reader's curiosity. Else, I believe Genesis would include
a scientific presentation of the beginning.
the believer hears the many controversies concerning the
beginning of the heavens and earth, it is important to remember
God authored Genesis to provide an understanding of man's
creation and the relationship between man and God. The physical
aspects of the original creation are briefly mentioned and
was pertinent to providing a physical environment for man.
But, detailed information is not provided. None the less,
some scholars seek to gather enough data from Genesis for
a deeper perspective of earth's creation. To those seekers,
this rest of this document is dedicated.
The Gap Theory's Weak Scriptural
are many scholarly opinions concerning the beginning physical
environment of the earth. Some believe the Bible tells us
the earth was destroyed by a flood and became empty
and void in Genesis 1:2 (KJV). This particular interpretation
of the above scripture established the "gap" theory.
This interpretation assumes there was an undocumented time
period between Verse 1 and Verse 2 when the dinosaurs existed.
Then there was a flood in which the dinosaurs became extinct.
The basis for this interpretation is centered on the Hebrew
word for "was" in Genesis 1:2.
1:2 (KJV) - And the earth was
without form, and void; and darkness was upon the
face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face
of the waters.
- (Strong's Concordance - Hebrew) #1961 - hayah
(haw-yaw); a primitive root; to exist, i.e. be
or become, come to pass.
Hebrew root word "hayah" means to "exist",
"be or become." So, it is not specifically required
that the proper interpretation state the earth was
formless and void at the exact time of the creation in Verse
1 or that it became formless and void many, many
years later. Hayah can be used in both ways. Scholars attempting
to fit the dinosaurs into the scriptures choose to believe
the earth became formless and void, opening the door
to another earth formation prior to Genesis 1:2.
& Delitzsch Commentary on Genesis 1:2:
& Delitzsch Commentary - "And
the earth was waste and void." The alliterative
nouns tohu vabohu, the etymology of which is lost, signify
waste and empty (barren), but not laying waste and
desolating. Whenever they are used together in other
places (Isa 34:11; Jer 4:23), they are taken from this passage;
but tohu alone is frequently employed as synonymous with
'ayin (OT:369), non-existence,
and hebel (OT:1893), nothingness (Isa 40:17,23; 49:4). The
coming earth was at first waste and desolate, a formless,
lifeless mass, rudis indigestaque moles, hu'lee a'morfos
(Wisdom 11:17) or cha'os.
& Delitzsch are in the group of scholars which adhere
to the interpretation that the earth was "formless
and void" at the time of the original creation. They
do not believe the earth became formless and void
at a later time, prior to day one of God's creative work
of rearranging things for the habitat of man, plants and
animals. This view of creation does not allow another time
for the existence of the dinosaurs other the time of Adam
in pre-flood earth.
a scholar believes the science of dating materials
is accurate and thinks dinosaurs lived millions and millions
years ago, then the gap theory
provides a way to fit the dinosaurs into the biblical history.
I believe this is the underlying rationale for the gap theory.
But, what if there is a problem with the dating method?
If so, attempting to fit dinosaurs into Genesis 1:2
becomes a muddled endeavor.
gap theory presents a few interesting observations. These
are additional comments not previously discussed.
Theorists believe the dinosaurs existed between Genesis
1:1 and 1:2. Their theory suggests the flood
waters of Genesis 1:2 destroyed the dinosaurs. If
the gap theory is correct, then there had to be land for
dinosaurs and plant life. So, from where did all the water
required for flooding the earth come, when the earth became
void and without form.
there another water canopy under which the dinosaurs and
plant life existed? Was there a previous water canopy prior
to Genesis 1:2?
hypothetical picture requires a belief that this first canopy
was collapsed and the earth was flooded in the same way
that Noah's flood occurred. This picture presents a problem
because returning the water to the earth to eradicated all
life would have compressed the earth's crust and caused
tremendous changes in the earth's land elevations. There
would be mountains that could not have been covered by the
volume of water on the earth today. So, the water in Genesis
1:2 would not have covered the surface of the planet.
Some land mass would have been present. Then dry land would
have been present prior to Genesis 1:9. This of course
would create another controversy concerning the creation.
there no water canopy prior to Genesis 1:2?
hypothetical picture requires a belief that sufficient water
was lacking in the original creation of heaven and earth,
so God added additional water volume when the time arrived
for eradicating the dinosaurs. In this picture the earth
would have been exposed to the sun's radiant heat and cosmic
radiation. Plant life would be the same size and in abundance
as it is today. Which of course is insufficient for large
animal sustenance. Additionally, the polar areas would have
been iced over and not suitable for warm blooded animal
Theorists fail to study the physical science of the earth
as a result of God dividing the waters. Having accepted
Carbon-14 as a reliable scientific measurement of time,
they attempt to fit the dinosaurs into biblical scriptures
concerning the beginning before God divided the waters.
But, they do not realize Carbon 14 dating is faulty concerning
the time of pre-flood earth because the water canopy affected
the amount of Carbon 14 naturally produced and absorbed
by plant life, which is then eaten by animals and absorbed
by their bones.
Heaven and Earth
to this point in the study we can see the first heaven and
earth in two phases, pre-flood and post-flood configurations.
Now the study will look at the re-creation of heaven and
earth in Revelation 21:1 (KJV) - And I saw a new heaven
and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first
earth were passed away; and there was no more
of the great influences for believing the water canopy existed
prior to the flood is seen in the formation of the second
heaven and earth in the book of Revelation. What God did
in the beginning when He created heaven and earth, He will
do in the end of time when He re-creates heaven and earth.
The first event parallels the last event!
Earth's Environment When God Returns
reveals cold and heat; summer and winter will follow after
the flood in the following declaration in Genesis 8:22
(NIV) - "As long as the earth endures, seedtime
and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night
will never cease."
long as the earth endures" reveals post flood earth
environment will exist until the new heavens and new earth
are created in Revelation 21:1. There are three subjects
in the above mentioned verse - heaven, earth and the sea.
All three subjects are environmental elements. The new earth
will not have a sea. Since the new heaven and new earth
will be structured to accommodate eternal life on the earth,
then an environment similar to the one in the Garden of
Eden will be re-created.
Concordance - Greek Lexicon) #2537 kainos
(kahee-nos'); of uncertain affinity; new (especially in
freshness; while #3501 is properly so with respect
neos (neh'-os); including the comparative neoteros (neh-o'-ter-os);
a primary word; "new", i.e. (of persons) youthful,
or (of things) fresh; figuratively, regenerate
new heaven and earth will be a regeneration of the existing
heaven and earth. God will take what has always been here
and reform it to make a suitable environment for eternal
life on the planet. He does not add any additional material/physical
God will return to the earth with the New Jerusalem. However,
the physical environment of the new earth will be an improvement
over the one in the Garden of Eden, as God uses all the
sea water, as the new earth environment will have no sea.
He does not divide the waters, as He did in the beginning.
He uses all the sea water.
did all the sea water go? I believe God uses the waters
again to form another canopy over the earth, New Jerusalem
and the glory of God. The canopy will be positioned in the
same orbit as the first canopy in Genesis. Both the first
water canopy and the new water canopy are for the purpose
of establishing an eternal environment where no death or
decay are present. Only this time God uses all the sea water
forming a canopy through which the light of the sun, moon
or stars cannot penetrate, as they did in the Garden of
21:23 (KJV) - And the city
had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in
it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb
is the light thereof.
22:5 (KJV) - And there shall
be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light
of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and
they shall reign for ever and ever.
would be the depth of the water canopy over the New Jerusalem
and the earth?
canopy would require an orbital altitude above the earth's
surface sufficient to cover over the New Jerusalem.
21:16 (KJV) - And the city lieth
foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and
he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs.
The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal.
today's table of measures eight furlongs equal one mile.
Therefore, the New Jerusalem was 1500 miles X 1500 miles
X 1500 miles
calculate the area of the canopy will require adding to
the diameter of the earth a minimum distance of 2125 miles,
an approximate distance sufficient for an arch segment of
the canopy to cover the top corners of the 1500 mile cube
of the New Jerusalem.
from Encyclopedia Britannica
- The fifth largest planet of the solar
system, the Earth has an equatorial circumference of 40,076
km (24,902 miles), an equatorial radius of 6,378 km (3,963
miles), a polar radius of 6,357 km (3,950 miles), and a
mean radius of 6,371 km (3,960 miles). The
planet's total surface area is roughly 509,600,000
square km (197,000,000 square miles), of which about
29 percent, or 148,000,000 square km (57,000,000 square
miles), is land. The balance of the surface is covered by
the oceans and smaller seas. The Earth has a mass of 5.976
´ 1027 grams (or roughly 6 ´ 1021 metric tons) and a mean
density of 5.517 grams per cubic cm (0.2 pound per cubic
new mean radius of the canopy would be 6,085 miles (3,960
miles existing radius of the earth plus an additional 2,125
miles). The surface area of the canopy would than be approximately
303,000,000 square miles, an increase of 106,000,000 squares
miles greater than the earth's existing surface, mathematically
determined using a reciprocal ratio calculation correlating
radius to surface area.
there is enough water to cover the mean surface area of
the earth (197,000,000 square miles) to a depth of 8,810
feet. Therefore, if God removes the sea and uses all the
water to establish a new canopy (303,000,000 square miles),
the depth of the new canopy of water would be approximately
5,728 feet, again using a reciprocal calculation.
the depth of the water canopy is approximately 5,728 feet,
then the light of the sun, moon and stars could not penetrate
to light the earth. All light from the sun and moon would
be refracted or reflected back into space. If one were on
the moon looking at the earth, the planet would have an
appearance like a smooth and brilliant deep blue surface
because there would be no clouds. So, the earth's canopy
would appear as a brilliant jewel.
What are the scriptures
that reveal a canopy over the New Jerusalem?
4:2-6 (NIV) In that day
the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and
the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the
survivors in Israel. (3) Those that are left in Zion, who
remain in Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are recorded
among the living in Jerusalem. (4) The Lord will wash away
the filth of the women of Zion; he
will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit
of judgment and a spirit of fire. (5) Then the
LORD will create over all of Mount
Zion and over those
who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of
flaming fire by night; over
all the glory will be a canopy. (6) It will be
a shelter and shade from the
heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the
storm and rain.
2 & 4 - “In
that day”; “The Lord will …..cleanse
the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and
a spirit of fire” – These scriptures
speak of the day God will judge and cleanse Jerusalem. This
is of course, the end time judgment.
Zion” - (Strong's Concordance /
Hebrew) #6726 Tsiyown (tsee-yone'); the
same (regularly) as #6725; Tsijon (as a permanent
capital), a mountain of Jerusalem.
Zion is a mountain in Jerusalem and is noted as the permanent
capital of Israel in “that day”. During the millennium Jerusalem
will be the permanent capital of all the earth. This precept
will never change. Even as the throne of David was established
forever, Jerusalem is established forever as a permanent
capital of Israel. After the millennium period passes, God
will come to the earth with the New Jerusalem and it will
also be the everlasting permanent capital and seat of government
in the earth. The New Jerusalem will be positioned and located
above today's Jerusalem and Temple Mount. It will be the
new Mount Zion.
in the sense of conspicuousness [compare #5329];
a monumental or guiding pillar.
Zion will be a conspicuous monumental guiding structure
for all the people who survived the end time judgment. The
New Jerusalem will be conspicuous as it will rise 1500 miles
above the surface of the earth.
natsach (naw-tsakh'); a primitive root; properly,
to glitter from afar, i.e. to be eminent; to be
Zion / New Jerusalem will permanently glitter from a far
distance with the glory of God, as mentioned in verse 5.
21:23 (KJV) - And the city had
no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it:
for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is
the light thereof. The glory of God and the Lamb
will light the entire planet.
22:5 (KJV) - And there shall be no night there; and
they need no candle, neither light of the sun;
for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign
for ever and ever. The glory of God thru the Lamb will
radiant beneath the canopy and reflect back to the earth
off the inside surface of the water canopy covering the
entire surface of the earth. There will be no night. No
one will need a candle.
Isaiah is seeing into the future when the end time judgment
and purging of those who reject God is complete and God
returns to the earth with the New Jerusalem (Mt. Zion).
5 (Con't) - “Over
those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow
of flaming fire by night."
The cloud of smoke and pillar of fire by night,
traditionally, was the way God protected Israel during their
stay in the desert, having left Egypt. The cloud of smoke
and pillar of fire was instrumental in Israel's exodus from
14:19-20 (NIV) - Then the angel of God, who had been traveling
in front of Israel's army, withdrew and went behind them.
The pillar of cloud also moved from in front and stood behind
them, (20) coming between the armies of Egypt and Israel.
cloud and pillar of fire protected the Israelites as they
departed from Egypt. The covering of the cloud was a defense
against Israel’s enemies. When the Israelites settled in
one place the cloud of smoke and pillar of fire became their
covering of protection.
13:21-22 (NIV) - By day the LORD went ahead of them in a
pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by
night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so
that they could travel by day or night. (22) Neither
the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night
left its place in front of the people.
cloud and pillar of fire guided them in the day and night
as they journeyed through the desert, protecting them from
their enemies and protecting them from harsh environmental
elements. The pillar of fire was the Holy Spirit. Neither
the cloud nor the pillar of fire ever left its place of
covering the people. It was permanently placed for the duration
of their journey and habitation in the desert.
precept of God covering over His people with divine protection
and provisional care had its origin in Genesis when God
made a covenant covenant with Abraham, then in Exodus after
Moses commanded the people to sprinkle the lamb’s blood
on the door posts and frames of each house. The blood covering
was also a canopy of protection against death, even as Jesus'
blood covering is a canopy of protection against death.
Likewise, God will cover over the New Jerusalem city with
a canopy of protection from death caused by the physical
elements of cosmic and solar radiation. It will be the eternal
habitat for God's family.
5 & 6 (Con't) - “Over
all the glory will be a canopy”……"Shelter and
shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding
place from the storm and rain."
– After the end time judgment and cleansing of
Israel, the Lord will establish a canopy over the
glory of God. The glory of God will be beneath the water
canopy. This canopy will be a shelter and shade from the
heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the
storm and rain because it blocks out the radiant heat of
the sun. Even as it has always been, God's canopies establish
a refuge and hiding place for God’s people.
KJV uses the word “defense” instead of “canopy”-
– (Strong’s Concordance – Hebrew) #2646 chuppah (khoop-paw');
from #2645; a canopy.
in KJV - chamber, closet, defense.
chaphah (khaw-faw'); a primitive root; to cover;
by implication, to veil, to encase, protect.
in KJV - ceil, cover, overlay.
is a good word to illustrate the future structure of the
earth, after God recreates the earth to provide a physical
environment for eternal life. The canopy will be a covering
of defense against harmful physical elements from the cosmos.
The canopy will overlay the New Jerusalem and the glory
of God radiating from within the city. This is a tremendous
perception of covering over the New Jerusalem, in which,
God and Christ are there. This will be a environmental canopy
for eternal life. The earth will be a refuge and hiding
place in the universe. The new earth will be like the first
earth under the water canopy. There will be no weather,
no polar ice caps, no deserts, plant life will cover the
entire plant and thrive under the light of the glory of
God. No one will be short of the glory of God! All will
walk with God the Father and Christ Jesus, the Lamp of God's
on to this vision, we are closer than most scholars can
incorporating known laws of physics one can see how the
physical eternal environment for the Garden of Eden created.
Having a precept of what might have happen to that environment
after Noah's flood and seeing how God may create a new heaven
and earth by placing water above the firmament once again,
provides a sensible perspective and vision of how the eternal
habitat for God's family might be physically structured.
the final analysis having a sensible perspective of the
future earth and heaven does edify faith in the Word of
God as being absolute, lacking nothing. The Bible has no
contradictions and no controversies. Contradiction and controversy
is form in the minds of men due to a lack of knowledge.
this study contributes to forming an overall big picture
of the Bible and the Bible becomes more clear and strengthens
your faith in God as the sole Author.